How To Draw A 5 Point Star In Python

R is a large, robust package for doing math and statistics; it includes many, many graphing options. Otherwise I think that the stars you are drawing are not centered exactly around the center of the screen or at least it is not clear to me why they should. Our code consists of four parts. How to code your own adventure game in Python. How do you draw a star in python? Unanswered Questions. With five hardpoints, it can go head-to-head with large ships such as the Anaconda and Imperial Cutter, while its agility allows it to handle smaller. 4 Point Star - An easy, step by step drawing lesson for kids. Python programs in this article demonstrate how to print half pyramid, pyramid, inverted pyramid using for loop, range function and if statement in python. How to Draw a 5-point Star. Post a screen shot of the code. Whether you're looking for memorable gifts or everyday essentials, you can buy them here for less. - `ngram`: (optional, `False`) Draw the star using n straight lines (e. If you want to draw a polygon, you have to provide at least three coordinate points: created by Python and Tkinter. My program in the next section calculates this automatically for you, but if you just want to draw a square or another shape, it's clearer to do the maths and drop the numbers in. Shapes in Python How to make SVG shapes in python. Your textbook includes six months of prepaid access to the book's Companion Website. This tutorial is for Windows. It has twice more initialization time, but 1. Turtle graphics, draw a star? To get a 5 pointed star, you should draw 2 lines for each side. , make a pentagram). To the contrary, "this. Python is a dynamic language (did I already said that?) and as such, already implements, or makes it easy to implement, a number of popular design patterns with a few lines of code. The fill option gives the colour to use for the pieslice interior. In this article, I show you how to Print Pattern using for loop in Python. This tutorial is for Windows. Draw a line in the box where the median is located. So to draw a square, the angle is 360/4 = 90. Then we start the animation loop where we decrease the star's Z coordinates on each frame. This tutorial shows the sketching and drawing steps from start to finish. If you want to draw a polygon, you have to provide at least three coordinate points: created by Python and Tkinter. Draw five stars, but between each, pick up the pen, move forward by 350 units, turn right by 144, put the pen down, and draw the next star. The whole image can be converted from BGR to RGB or to a different color space using cvtColor. Watch how many complete rotations your cellphone makes before you complete the star. Most other toolkits only support Cartesian plotting. Shortest code wins. My motivating example is to identify the latent structures within the synopses of the top 100 films of all time (per an IMDB list). Our main focus is physics, but we also cater to other STEM fields including engineering. Python’s built-in round function converts a floating-point value into the nearest integer value: >>>. Manipulating the print statements, different number patterns, alphabet patterns or star patterns can be printed. Star The star() function created for this example is capable of drawing a wide range of different forms. org (the website) welcomes all Python game, art, music, sound, video and multimedia projects. Tkinter is the most widely used cross-platform GUI (graphical user interface) library, and, not coincidentally, comes bundled with most Python distributions. How to write a program to draw a triangle of stars in MATLAB? I have a exam and don't know how to write a program to draw a triangle of stars, for example. 2, introduced 22 new features and changes to the iOS 13 era, building off the improvements brought by iOS 13. Draws 100000 points of a Sierpinski Gasket. Python can be used to write simple programs, but it also possesses the full power required to create complex, large-scale enterprise solutions. Achieving a pentagon, where each side is equal with corners that touch, is not impossible as we explain below. If you'd like, you can draw a pilot in the cockpit of the airplane, blue sky and clouds. This time I’m going to give you a brief tutorial teaching you how to plot graphs using a component called Chart, its recommended for you to take a look at its documentation before. 02 miles, so can be neglected. append(next) uses. How do I create a star using the turtle module of python? How do I draw a hexagon using the turtle module of python? • 3,520 points • 45 views. limits - If not specified show whole image. To move an anchor point, simply drag it around. draw the bottom horizontal line spliting the right half 5. penup() smiles. star printing code in java. MatPlotLib Tutorial. A graph in matplotlib is a two- or three-dimensional drawing showing a relationship by means of points, a curve, or amongst others a series of bars. Star Emoji Html. 14) print dimensions print dimensions[0] print dimensions[1] print dimensions[2] (5, 3). 1) x = 12*np. Select Diagram > New from the application toolbar. This tutorial shows the sketching and drawing steps from start to finish. • Draw a straight line that connects two points in that drawing of which you know the distance in real life (for example, if you know how long a wall of your house in the drawing is, draw the line from one end of the wall to the other). This prepaid subscription provides you with full access to the following student support areas:. BUT you want to draw a line to every other point, so you will have to make the angle 72 * 2 = 144 degrees. The stars tutorial includes flags that feature five pointed stars. Print Star Pyramid Patterns in Python. Move your point to one of the marks without changing the radius of the compass. Dice Rolling Simulator. But then you realize you can make the six-pointed star out of three of these things, and you've got an asterisk, which is definitely a legitimate star. If anything else,. This function has to be called explicitly (it is not used by the turtle graphics classes). This tutorial is meant to be easily translated into languages besides English. - `num_points`: The number of points on the star. The angles need to add to 72 (360/5) Python draw n-pointed star. The drawing functions process each channel independently and do not depend on the channel order or even on the used color space. Python - Tkinter Canvas - The Canvas is a rectangular area intended for drawing pictures or other complex layouts. Illustrates poor programming practice: the display callback contains long-running code. Double-click if you want to draw a straight segment next. Snake with Pygame In this tutorial you will learn how to build the game snake. Python is an extremely readable and versatile programming language. Load, transform, modify and save Excel-files with Python to improve your reporting processes If you work with data, you will get in touch with excel. 5): to avoid problems with multiplication of lists in Python. Troubleshooting. Building a CRUD application using Python and Django By Nitin Prakash Introduction: I’ve been meaning to write a series on Django which is a web application framework written in Python. Write a Python program that asks the user to input 5 points and then draws an orange pentagon by connecting the points as a polygon. The whole image can be converted from BGR to RGB or to a different color space using cvtColor. A star polygon Draw a five-pointed star using named variables to specify the polygon attributes so that all the points or vertexes or tips of the star are defined with … - Selection from Python 2. The whole image can be converted from BGR to RGB or to a different color space using cvtColor(). Remember first three values returned are indices of cnt. To make use of the turtle methods and functionalities, we need to import turtle. We must translate to put it in the right place. You can type this right in the python interpreter to experiment with turtle graphics or, better yet, include this line at the top of your program and then use turtle drawing commands in your program! In the turtle package when you run a program with turtle commands, a special window will open where the drawing will take place. A tree with eight nodes. Every time I run the following code Blender should either show or hide the name of the object in the Viewport, depending on the. The pencil should touch C. It has been important to almost every ancient culture, from the Mayans of Latin America, to India, China, Greece, and Egypt. 01 The BSc Informatics course conducted byUniversity of Calicutis based completely on Free Soft-ware. Python does not have built-in support for trees. The most common mistake in working with an ellipse is to think that the starting point specifies the center of the ellipse. Create two empty lists. I made the plots using the Python packages matplotlib and seaborn, but you could reproduce them in any software. You can also write your own extension to generate other UML and software design diagrams using SmartDraw's Open API. Otherwise I think that the stars you are drawing are not centered exactly around the center of the screen or at least it is not clear to me why they should. You must do the following to get started with Pygame: import pygame import sys pygame. A golden five pointed star, is a star that has points of equal length and equal angles of 36 degrees at each point. In the Polygon Settings box, enter values for width, height, sides and star inset. The most common mistake in working with an ellipse is to think that the starting point specifies the center of the ellipse. Problem 47E from Chapter 1: Using Turtle Graphics, draw a five-point star without lines. What you will make. The vertex of each triangle, a point of the star, is 36 degrees. forward(size) turtle. SVG Polygon - The element is used to create a graphic that contains at least three sides. Circles are a little tricker since the outline starts with the initial turtle position and heading. The docstring dictionary will be written to the Python script filename. For Loop The for loop that is used to iterate over elements of a sequence, it is often used when you have a piece of code which you want to repeat "n" number of time. Ola, amigos! Here I am again to another tutorial. The element is used to create any shape that consists of only straight lines (that is connected at several points):. This will ask the user for an input. "Vose's Alias 2" is optimized implementation which uses Python specific. The first two parameters are the x and y coordinates of the center point of the text. Home > Directory of Drawing Lessons > Drawing Objects & Things > Geometric Shapes > How to Draw Stars. Here is a simple example which asks the user to choose the colour of the flower, calculates the angle the turtle will need to turn in between drawing each petal, and uses a loop to draw a. TypeError-- if points is not a sequence or points does not contain number pairs Changed in pygame 2. The angles need to add to 72 (360/5) Python draw n-pointed star. In Python, an assignment statement can make two variables equal, but because of the possibility of reassignment, they don’t have to stay that way: a = 5 b = a # after executing this line, a and b are now equal a = 3 # after executing this line, a and b are no longer equal. Plotting the complex numbers in Python. The one we'll look at in this chapter allows us to create turtles and get them to draw shapes and patterns. a = 5 a = 5 = b. This lecture assumes that you already have python. use turtle to draw a five-pointed star The turtle module provides turtle graphics primitives, it uses Tkinter for the underlying graphics so it needs Python with Tk support. It continues to improve, and the features described here are tested with "Pillow 5. My motivating example is to identify the latent structures within the synopses of the top 100 films of all time (per an IMDB list). The given star has a radius of 50, it is centred on 0,0 which is the wrong place. 5 Problem 2 : "I'm walking into spiderwebs" Turtles are not known for creating webs, but now that our turtle knows how to draw a pinwheel, it is an easy step for it to create a spiderweb. There are lots of variants of the algorithms, and lots of variants in implementation. right(72 - angle) turtle. Python is a powerful, expressive programming language that’s easy to learn and fun to use!. This is a quick way to make one in R. [code]import turtle wn = turtle. My program in the next section calculates this automatically for you, but if you just want to draw a square or another shape, it's clearer to do the maths and drop the numbers in. 1st Challenge: Draw a square. If you have introductory to intermediate knowledge in Python and statistics, you can use this article as a one-stop shop for building and plotting histograms in Python using libraries from its scientific stack, including NumPy, Matplotlib, Pandas, and Seaborn. , make a pentagram). We can infer where she got it. LAB #5 Python Loops and Turtle Graphics You can choose to work individually or in pairs at this time. Draw the figure. There's no need to go crazy or waste two whole erasers. In this part of the Java 2D tutorial, we create some basic and more advanced shapes. Failing that, just Google for a phrase including. Given three points, it is possible to draw a circle that passes through all three*. Leave the first square blank. Each module is a different file, which can be edited separately. Given a string containing the RLE data to draw an ASCII art (with the restrictions proposed), write the shortest program/function/method you can in order to compress it as described. While dropping an anchor point, click once if you want the next segment of your path to be curved. There are several methods that can be used to accomplish this: If the points represent polygon boundaries. A five point star These two figures are illustrated in Figure 1, which shows the instructor's solution. In reality, nothing is drawn at the starting point. You should start by. MatPlotLib Tutorial. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Patterns can be printed in python using simple for loops. CNET is the world's leader in tech product reviews, news, prices, videos, forums, how-tos and more. Digital snowflakes out of code, like this one: What you will learn. Some Useful Settings and Methods for Turtle These tables show some of the values for various methods used in the Python turtle package. The goals of the chapter are to introduce SimPy, and to hint at the experiment design and analysis issues that will be covered in later chapters. By default, the Matplotlib charts are rather bland, but the creator of Matplotlib left the door wide open to customization. (5 pts) Continue to Practice: Loops in Python. If you want to draw a polygon, you have to provide at least three coordinate points: created by Python and Tkinter. In another Python Patterns column, I will try to analyze their running speed and improve their performance, at the cost of more code. a = 0 while a < 10: a = a + 1 print a. You can also write your own extension to generate other UML and software design diagrams using SmartDraw's Open API. 2) If it’s true a) Go ahead and execute stmt1 through stmtn, in order. There are two built-in functions that the turtle understands: begin f ill O and end fill. Here's how to draw a square, for example:. Snake with Pygame In this tutorial you will learn how to build the game snake. To draw a snake, start by making a circle for the head. The given star has a radius of 50, it is centred on 0,0 which is the wrong place. Am I going to have to use tcl/tk? Take a look at Tkinter, Python's wrapper around Tk - you'll find many things if you Google this! It's hard to tell yu more not knowing what you really want, since you're *not telling* ;-). Logo is a drawing language designed for kids who do not know geometry but can imagine walking around on a dirt field and occasionally turning while dragging a stick or dripping paint. Draw a five-pointed star using named variables to specify the polygon attributes so that all the points or vertexes or tips of the star are defined with reference to a single start position. Scrape away any paint and use a factory bolt, or make your own ground with a self-tapping screw and a star washer. I'm using Gentoo and running a Django app with Apache 2 and mod_python. This function should not be used directly by igraph users, it is useful only in the case when the underlying igraph object must be passed to other C code through Python. It works by joining two pairs of points to create two chords. Write a void function draw_equitriangle(t, sz) which calls draw_poly from the previous question to have its turtle draw a equilateral triangle. Monty Python - this movie will never stop being hilarious. Failing that, just Google for a phrase including. A line chart or line graph is a type of chart which displays information as a series of data points. A simple tutorial for Python's turtle. The algorithm must print/return two strings: the first one containing the dictionary used for the compression, and the second one being the resulting compressed. Print Star Pyramid Patterns in Python. The pentagram has long been associated with witchcraft and the occult. forward(size) turtle. So to draw a square, the angle is 360/4 = 90. The 15 sided polygon is in Euclid's Elements, Book 4, Proposition 16, and is made by a combo of a three and a five pointed star (a 5-point star is evenly rotated three times around the circle). But then you realize you can make the six-pointed star out of three of these things, and you've got an asterisk, which is definitely a legitimate star. This post will describe the different kinds of loops in Python. In order to draw a line from point A to point B on the screen you would need to use the Draw. 2D Plotting¶ Sage provides extensive 2D plotting functionality. The whole image can be converted from BGR to RGB or to a different color space using cvtColor. pygame (the library) is a Free and Open Source python programming language library for making multimedia applications like games. To print star pyramid patterns in python, you have to use two or more than two for loops. Write a function drawMyPic to have the turtle draw a simple line drawing of anything you want. Turtle graphics, draw a star? To get a 5 pointed star, you should draw 2 lines for each side. Returns the igraph graph encapsulated by the Python object as a PyCObject. At first try yourself, then go to see code. line, each data point is represented as a vertex (which location is given by the x and y columns) of a polyline mark in 2D space. routine - how to draw contours: smooth, fast, neg. pch = 24: filled triangle point-up, pch = 25: filled triangle point down. Python: Using Turtles for Drawing Circles August 6, 2012 Python Python Mike I am currently working on a book review for a college course Python book that uses the Python turtle module and Tkinter to help teach the Python programming language. The docstring dictionary will be written to the Python script filename. Graphics class comes with two methods and one constructor to draw polygons. Make those points into an array of shape ROWSx1x2 where ROWS are number of vertices and it should be of type int32. The latest official update for iPhone, iOS 13. If you'd like, you can draw a pilot in the cockpit of the airplane, blue sky and clouds. Python’s philosophy is built on top of the idea of well thought out best practices. That is, in the population, there's a 95% chance that people with major life depression have anywhere between 1. Perspective grid allows you to approximately represent a scene on a flat surface, as it is naturally perceived (by the human eye). circle(10) #eye one smiles. @fred I should point out, Perl treat the value of chr as a Unicode codepoint if Perl is started in a Unicode locale like UTF-8. How to Draw a 5-point Star: When you build things a lot, you tend to take for granted the things you have picked up over the years. There are two built-in functions that the turtle understands: begin f ill O and end fill. Why use a while? Two, you can make the turtle do the angle math if you're not up to braining. "Vose's Alias" is an implementation of Vose's alias method directly translated from Java. In order to draw a line from point A to point B on the screen you would need to use the Draw. You must do the following to get started with Pygame: import pygame import sys pygame. It was also directed by Jones. If you don’t know how to program, you can learn by downloading the. • Draw a straight line that connects two points in that drawing of which you know the distance in real life (for example, if you know how long a wall of your house in the drawing is, draw the line from one end of the wall to the other). 5-Point Star Like the four-pointed star, the five-pointed star symbol in Christianity is also known as the Star of Bethlehem and represents Jesus' birth and incarnation. Draw things. Each of these five levels of Python correspond to a half-week of material. msi if you're on Windows. For Loop The for loop that is used to iterate over elements of a sequence, it is often used when you have a piece of code which you want to repeat "n" number of time. Tkinter is the most widely used cross-platform GUI (graphical user interface) library, and, not coincidentally, comes. If we skip this step, there’ll be no turtle to control. Your function will need three arguments: the turtle with which to draw, the length of each side, and the number n of sides. Consider, if you want a 5-pointed star: 360 /5 = 72, so each point is 72 degrees apart. Basic Data Types: Hello, World! Simple Numeric Computation: Strings I: Strings II. 1 and iOS 13 proper before it. a = 0 while a < 10: a = a + 1 print a. The nice thing is that the turtle ends up where it started, and with the same heading. Hierarchical Clustering via Scikit-Learn. First outer loop is used to handle number of rows and Inner nested loop is used to handle the number of columns. Matplotlib can be used in Python scripts, the Python and IPython shells, the Jupyter notebook, web application servers, and four graphical user interface toolkits. The largest jackpot ever won was €190 million. Contents: The Union Jack in PostScript, Description of correct construction, A frequently seen error, Areas of the various parts of the flag, Variations on the 2:1 ratio, Union Jack or Union Flag?, Other files, comment and flags, Afterword. Simple pyramid. sh owt u rtle() Sets the state to hide / show the turtle. - Analyze the. Leaders Made Here: Building a Leadership Culture by Mark Miller 2017 | EPUB | 1. Another free Cartoons for beginners step by step drawing video tutorial. This book assumes you know a little bit about Python or programming in general. EVENT_RBUTTONDOWN(). OYOclass is a toolset that can help you create your own teaching / learning community Python Turtle: Draw a Hexagon and an Octagon 5-Star Maze Runner. I also wanted to point out one of the pyRevit feature introduced in 4. In fact, this simple figure is quite amazing. A five pointed star? Change the pentagon's turn angle to 324. The class can draw everything from simple lines to complex shapes like pies and chords. If you're having trouble getting any of the code in the book to work, why not download it from here and compare with what you've typed - it might help you figure out where you've gone wrong. If you downloaded Python 2. There are several methods that can be used to accomplish this: If the points represent polygon boundaries. Out of the box, the model 27's 8. Here is the Python documentation for the os module. Run the program by clicking in the window at five locations moving around the window. I also wanted to point out one of the pyRevit feature introduced in 4. The following are code examples for showing how to use cv2. Draw five stars, but between each, pick up the pen, move forward by 350 units, turn right by 144, put the pen down, and draw the next star. Since class diagrams are used for many different purposes, such as making stakeholders aware of requirements to highlighting your detailed design, you need to apply a different style in each circumstance. The vertex angle of a star can really be almost anything you want it to be (less than 180 degrees. Learn more. r/HomeworkHelp: Need help with homework? [College Computer Science] Drawing with Turtle Python. PyGame Drawing Basics Getting Started. Created by Atari, Asteroids was one of the first vector graphics games, which means that it relied solely on lines to draw graphics, as opposed to little square pixels. It was developed by John Hunter in 2002. Seymour Papert added support for turtle graphics to Logo in the late 1960s to support his version of the turtle robot, a simple robot controlled from the user's workstation that is designed to carry out the drawing functions assigned to it using a small retractable pen set into or attached to the robot's body. For non-antialiased lines with integer coordinates, the 8-connected or 4-connected Bresenham algorithm is used. When a star disappears from the screen, we reposition it again in the screen giving it random X and Y coordinates, and setting Z = maximum depth. Drawing and Writing on Image OpenCV Python Tutorial In this OpenCV with Python tutorial, we're going to be covering how to draw various shapes on your images and videos. Aimed at beginner programmers or people that has no programming experience. QPainter performs low-level painting on widgets and other paint devices. Use a different color (or token) for stroke and fill, and background. We aim to provide a community for students, scientists, educators or hobbyists to learn and discuss science as it is currently generally understood and practiced by the professional scientific community. Instructions provided describe how to convert a point feature class to a polygon feature class. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. We fill shapes with solid colours, gradients, and textures. Parsing of command-line arguments is further supported by library modules optparse (deprecated), argparse (since Python 2. Speed The methods that require a speed with which to move the cursor (turtle) take an integer argument. pendown() smiles. 5: Using glBegin and glEnd which should serve as a bridge between the old way of drawing triangles in OpenGL and the new, discussed in this tutorial. The angle outside the shape is 72. It is intended to serve as a template for translation of the docstrings into different languages. No extra packages are required to use it. Lecture 2 will show you how to install and run python. submit within one day of the deadline there will be a ten point deduction. We get away with it here because we only have to generate 100000 points. Because it is based on Python, it also has much to offer for experienced programmers and researchers. The underlying rendering is done using the matplotlib Python library. The offset of 2*sizeof(float) for the color attribute is there because each vertex starts with 2 floating point values for the position that it has to skip over. It's fairly common to want to mark detected objects in some way, so we the humans can easily see if our programs are working as we might hope. The roadmap for executing a turtle program follows 4 steps: Import the turtle module Create a turtle to control. LEGO, the LEGO logo, the Minifigure, DUPLO, LEGENDS OF CHIMA, NINJAGO, BIONICLE, MINDSTORMS and MIXELS are trademarks and copyrights of the LEGO Group. Lose 1–2 points per hint used. Leave the first square blank. (Note: Python’s None object should not be used as a node as it determines whether optional function arguments have been assigned in. I am able to make a basic version of it but i think that there is still room for improvement! Quick note: I am new to python and my code may not be of the best quality Ideally the outcome should look like this. a text string, an image, an XML object, another Graph, a customized node object, etc. After storing data about each game played this season, I recognized some outliers in the dataset. The given star has a radius of 50, it is centred on 0,0 which is the wrong place. fillcolor(color) turtle. There are several methods that can be used to accomplish this: If the points represent polygon boundaries. How to code your own adventure game in Python. Default filler is a space. How do I rotate the polygon about an anchor point using python script? the anchor point on (0. Draw a (yellow) circle and a fixed point P on the circle line. We get away with it here because we only have to generate 100000 points. Our main focus is physics, but we also cater to other STEM fields including engineering. Because it is based on Python, it also has much to offer for experienced programmers and researchers. Achieving a pentagon, where each side is equal with corners that touch, is not impossible as we explain below. Sure, the four-pointed star doesn't look too star-like. Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library which produces publication quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms. I've tried moving the site to mod_wsgi and still get the segfault. 7 like I suggested, you would download the pygame-1. Repeat this on the right side of the point that you drew. Currently it allows Python code to call R functions, and write R code to create Python objects and call Python functions and methods. After that, let's take a look at different ways of drawing primitives in OpenGL. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Drawing Polygon¶ To draw a polygon, first you need coordinates of vertices. If you use a good graphics library, writing Python programming language that draws five-pointed stars, or any other simple two-dimensional geometric shapes, can be quick and easy. Lose 1–2 points per hint used. The easiest way to do this is to use our Google Map widget, which you can read how to set up here. I made a program to draw the Olympic flag in Python using the turtle module. Here is a simple example which asks the user to choose the colour of the flower, calculates the angle the turtle will need to turn in between drawing each petal, and uses a loop to draw a. 4 Concentric squares 2. Since you are using radians, thats 2 * pi / 5 * 2 = 2. In the Middle Ages people often wore pentagrams on their clothing or carved them into the frames around their doors and windows in. The tile server also caches the tiles on disk. 5*p) y = 12*np. Once you've drawn the dot in the center of your square, one easy way to draw circles is to use a compass. Join today to get access to thousands of courses. When called with draw_poly(tess, 8, 50), it will draw a shape like this: Draw this pretty pattern. You can place graphics, text, widgets or frames on a Canvas. To draw a snake, start by making a circle for the head. Star The star() function created for this example is capable of drawing a wide range of different forms. The diagram for the Ball class is shown in. Troubleshooting. If you downloaded Python 2. Learn software, creative, and business skills to achieve your personal and professional goals. Introduction: Matplotlib is a tool for data visualization and this tool built upon the Numpy and Scipy framework. 01 The BSc Informatics course conducted byUniversity of Calicutis based completely on Free Soft-ware. from PIL import Image,ImageDraw img = Image. turtle is included in the binary installers downloadable from python. Notice, that in our drawing, the rectangle and ellipse are both entirely contained within the rectangle that stretches from point (0,0) to point (80,130) of the client area, actually, point (82,132) to be on the safe side since we know that the lines may stray a pixel or so outside this area. Python String center() Method - Python string method center() returns centered in a string of length width.